Bibliography Volume Number Mla Citations

MLA Works Cited Page: Books


MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

Contributors: Tony Russell, Allen Brizee, Elizabeth Angeli, Russell Keck, Joshua M. Paiz, Michelle Campbell, Rodrigo RodrĂ­guez-Fuentes, Daniel P. Kenzie, Susan Wegener, Maryam Ghafoor, Purdue OWL Staff
Last Edited: 2018-01-09 11:20:41

When you are gathering book sources, be sure to make note of the following bibliographic items: the author name(s), other contributors such as translators or editors, the book’s title, editions of the book, the publication date, the publisher, and the pagination.

The 8th edition of the MLA handbook highlights principles over prescriptive practices. Essentially, a writer will need to take note of primary elements in every source, such as author, title, etc. and then assort them in a general format. Thus, in using this methodology, a writer will be able to source a specific item that may not be included in this list.

Remember these changes from previous editions:

  • Commas are used instead of periods between Publisher, Publication Date, and Pagination.
  • Medium is no longer necessary.
  • Containers are now a part of the MLA process, in light of technology. Periods should be used between Containers.
  • DOIs should be used instead of URLS when available.
  • Use the phrase, “Accessed” instead of listing the date or the abbreviation, “n.d.”

Below is the general format for any citation:

Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition), Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (pages, paragraphs URL or DOI). 2nd container’s title, Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher, Publication date, Location, Date of Access (if applicable).

Basic Book Format

The author’s name or a book with a single author's name appears in last name, first name format. The basic form for a book citation is:

Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Publisher, Publication Date.

Book with One Author

Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. Penguin, 1987.

Henley, Patricia. The Hummingbird House. MacMurray, 1999.

Book with More Than One Author

When a book has multiple authors, order the authors in the same way they are presented in the book. The first given name appears in last name, first name format; subsequent author names appear in first name last name format.

Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

If there are three or more authors, list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (Latin for "and others") in place of the subsequent authors' names. (Note that there is a period after “al” in “et al.” Also note that there is never a period after the “et” in “et al.”).

Wysocki, Anne Frances, et al. Writing New Media: Theory and Applications for Expanding the Teaching of Composition. Utah State UP, 2004. 

Two or More Books by the Same Author

List works alphabetically by title. (Remember to ignore articles like A, An, and The.) Provide the author’s name in last name, first name format for the first entry only. For each subsequent entry by the same author, use three hyphens and a period.

Palmer, William J. Dickens and New Historicism. St. Martin's, 1997.

---. The Films of the Eighties: A Social History. Southern Illinois UP, 1993.

Book by a Corporate Author or Organization

A corporate author may include a commission, a committee, a government agency, or a group that does not identify individual members on the title page.

List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry.

American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. Random House, 1998.

When the author and publisher are the same, skip the author, and list the title first. Then, list the corporate author only as the publisher.

Fair Housing—Fair Lending. Aspen Law & Business, 1985.

Book with No Author

List by title of the book. Incorporate these entries alphabetically just as you would with works that include an author name. For example, the following entry might appear between entries of works written by Dean, Shaun and Forsythe, Jonathan.

Encyclopedia of Indiana. Somerset, 1993.

Remember that for an in-text (parenthetical) citation of a book with no author, provide the name of the work in the signal phrase and the page number in parentheses. You may also use a shortened version of the title of the book accompanied by the page number. For more information see the In-text Citations for Print Sources with No Known Author section of In-text Citations: The Basics.

A Translated Book

If you want to emphasize the work rather than the translator, cite as you would any other book. Add “translated by” and follow with the name(s) of the translator(s).

Foucault, Michel. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Translated by Richard Howard, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

If you want to focus on the translation, list the translator as the author. In place of the author’s name, the translator’s name appears. His or her name is followed by the label, “translator.” If the author of the book does not appear in the title of the book, include the name, with a “By” after the title of the book and before the publisher. Note that this type of citation is less common and should only be used for papers or writing in which translation plays a central role.

Howard, Richard, translator. Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. By Michel Foucault, Vintage-Random House, 1988.

Republished Book

Books may be republished due to popularity without becoming a new edition. New editions are typically revisions of the original work. For books that originally appeared at an earlier date and that have been republished at a later one, insert the original publication date before the publication information.

For books that are new editions (i.e. different from the first or other editions of the book), see An Edition of a Book below.

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. 1990. Routledge, 1999.

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine. 1984. Perennial-Harper, 1993.

An Edition of a Book

There are two types of editions in book publishing: a book that has been published more than once in different editions and a book that is prepared by someone other than the author (typically an editor).

A Subsequent Edition

Cite the book as you normally would, but add the number of the edition after the title.

Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. 3rd ed., Pearson, 2004.

A Work Prepared by an Editor

Cite the book as you normally would, but add the editor after the title with the label, "Edited by"

Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. Edited by Margaret Smith, Oxford UP, 1998.

Anthology or Collection (e.g. Collection of Essays)

To cite the entire anthology or collection, list by editor(s) followed by a comma and "editor" or, for multiple editors, "editors." This sort of entry is somewhat rare. If you are citing a particular piece within an anthology or collection (more common), see A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection below.

Hill, Charles A., and Marguerite Helmers, editors. Defining Visual Rhetorics. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.

Peterson, Nancy J., editor. Toni Morrison: Critical and Theoretical Approaches. Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

A Work in an Anthology, Reference, or Collection

Works may include an essay in an edited collection or anthology, or a chapter of a book. The basic form is for this sort of citation is as follows:

Last name, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection, edited by Editor's Name(s), Publisher, Year, Page range of entry.

Some examples:

Harris, Muriel. "Talk to Me: Engaging Reluctant Writers." A Tutor's Guide: Helping Writers One to One, edited by Ben Rafoth, Heinemann, 2000, pp. 24-34.

Swanson, Gunnar. "Graphic Design Education as a Liberal Art: Design and Knowledge in the University and The 'Real World.'" The Education of a Graphic Designer, edited by Steven Heller, Allworth Press, 1998, pp. 13-24.

Note on Cross-referencing Several Items from One Anthology: If you cite more than one essay from the same edited collection, MLA indicates you may cross-reference within your works cited list in order to avoid writing out the publishing information for each separate essay. You should consider this option if you have several references from a single text. To do so, include a separate entry for the entire collection listed by the editor's name as below:

Rose, Shirley K., and Irwin Weiser, editors. The Writing Program Administrator as Researcher. Heinemann, 1999.

Then, for each individual essay from the collection, list the author's name in last name, first name format, the title of the essay, the editor's last name, and the page range:

L'Eplattenier, Barbara. "Finding Ourselves in the Past: An Argument for Historical Work on WPAs." Rose and Weiser, pp. 131-40.

Peeples, Tim. "'Seeing' the WPA With/Through Postmodern Mapping." Rose and Weiser, pp. 153-67.

Please note: When cross-referencing items in the works cited list, alphabetical order should be maintained for the entire list. 

Poem or Short Story Examples:

Burns, Robert. "Red, Red Rose." 100 Best-Loved Poems, edited by Philip Smith, Dover, 1995, p. 26.

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl." The Vintage Book of Contemporary American Short Stories, edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

If the specific literary work is part of the author's own collection (all of the works have the same author), then there will be no editor to reference:

Whitman, Walt. "I Sing the Body Electric." Selected Poems. Dover, 1991, pp. 12-19. 

Carter, Angela. "The Tiger's Bride." Burning Your Boats: The Collected Stories. Penguin, 1995, pp. 154-69.

Article in a Reference Book (e.g. Encyclopedias, Dictionaries)

For entries in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and other reference works, cite the piece as you would any other work in a collection but do not include the publisher information. Also, if the reference book is organized alphabetically, as most are, do not list the volume or the page number of the article or item.

"Ideology." The American Heritage Dictionary. 3rd ed., 1997.

A Multivolume Work

When citing only one volume of a multivolume work, include the volume number after the work's title, or after the work's editor or translator.

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, vol. 2, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980. 

When citing more than one volume of a multivolume work, cite the total number of volumes in the work. Also, be sure in your in-text citation to provide both the volume number and page number(s). (See Citing Multivolume Works on the In-Text Citations – The Basics page, which you can access by following the appropriate link at the bottom of this page.)

Quintilian. Institutio Oratoria. Translated by H. E. Butler, Loeb-Harvard UP, 1980. 4 vols. 

If the volume you are using has its own title, cite the book without referring to the other volumes as if it were an independent publication.

Churchill, Winston S. The Age of Revolution. Dodd, 1957.

An Introduction, Preface, Foreword, or Afterword

When citing an introduction, a preface, a foreword, or an afterword, write the name of the author(s) of the piece you are citing. Then give the name of the part being cited, which should not be italicized or enclosed in quotation marks; in italics, provide the name of the work and the name of the author of the introduction/preface/foreword/afterword. Finish the citation with the details of publication and page range.

Farrell, Thomas B. Introduction. Norms of Rhetorical Culture, by Farrell, Yale UP, 1993, pp. 1-13.

If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work, then write the full name of the principal work's author after the word "By." For example, if you were to cite Hugh Dalziel Duncan’s introduction of Kenneth Burke’s book Permanence and Change, you would write the entry as follows:

Duncan, Hugh Dalziel. Introduction. Permanence and Change: An Anatomy of Purpose, by Kenneth Burke, 1935, 3rd ed., U of California P, 1984, pp. xiii-xliv.

Other Print/Book Sources

Certain book sources are handled in a special way by MLA style.

Book Published Before 1900

Original copies of books published before 1900 are usually defined by their place of publication rather than the publisher. Unless you are using a newer edition, cite the city of publication where you would normally cite the publisher. 

Thoreau, Henry David. Excursions. Boston, 1863.

The Bible

Italicize “The Bible” and follow it with the version you are using. Remember that your in-text (parenthetical citation) should include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book, the chapter and verse(s). (See Citing the Bible at In-Text Citations: The Basics.)

The Bible. Authorized King James Version, Oxford UP, 1998.


The Bible. The New Oxford Annotated Version, 3rd ed., Oxford UP, 2001.


The New Jerusalem Bible. Edited by Susan Jones, Doubleday, 1985. 

A Government Publication

Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified. Otherwise, start with the name of the national government, followed by the agency (including any subdivisions or agencies) that serves as the organizational author. For congressional documents, be sure to include the number of the Congress and the session when the hearing was held or resolution passed as well as the report number. US government documents are typically published by the Government Printing Office.

United States, Congress, Senate, Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Hearing on the Geopolitics of Oil. Government Printing Office, 2007. 110th Congress, 1st session, Senate Report 111-8.


United States, Government Accountability Office. Climate Change: EPA and DOE Should Do More to Encourage Progress Under Two Voluntary Programs. Government Printing Office, 2006.

A Pamphlet

Cite the title and publication information for the pamphlet just as you would a book without an author. Pamphlets and promotional materials commonly feature corporate authors (commissions, committees, or other groups that does not provide individual group member names). If the pamphlet you are citing has no author, cite as directed below. If your pamphlet has an author or a corporate author, put the name of the author (last name, first name format) or corporate author in the place where the author name typically appears at the beginning of the entry. (See also Books by a Corporate Author or Organization above.)

Women's Health: Problems of the Digestive System. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2006.

Your Rights Under California Welfare Programs. California Department of Social Services, 2007.

Dissertations and Master's Theses

Dissertations and master's theses may be used as sources whether published or not. Cite the work as you would a book, but include the designation Dissertation (or MA/MS thesis) followed by the degree-granting school and the year the degree was awarded.

If the dissertation is published, italicize the title and include the publication date. You may also include the University Microfilms International (UMI) order number if you choose:

Bishop, Karen Lynn. Documenting Institutional Identity: Strategic Writing in the IUPUI Comprehensive Campaign. Dissertation, Purdue University, 2002. UMI, 2004.

Bile, Jeffrey. Ecology, Feminism, and a Revised Critical Rhetoric: Toward a Dialectical Partnership. Dissertation, Ohio University, 2005. UMI, 2006. AAT 3191701.

If the work is not published, put the title in quotation marks and end with the date the degree was awarded:

Graban, Tarez Samra. "Towards a Feminine Ironic: Understanding Irony in the Oppositional Discourse of Women from the Early Modern and Modern Periods." Dissertation, Purdue University, 2006.

Stolley, Karl. "Toward a Conception of Religion as a Discursive Formation: Implications for Postmodern Composition Theory." MA thesis, Purdue University, 2002.

List the names of corporate authors in the place where an author’s name typically appears at the beginning of the entry if the author and publisher are not the same.

    American Allergy Association. Allergies in Children. Random House, 1998.

When the author and publisher are the same, skip the author, and list the title first. Then, list the corporate author only as the publisher.

Fair Housing—Fair Lending. Aspen Law & Business, 1985. 

Keep track of the sources you use as you do your research and draft your paper. Make sure that you have all of the publication information for each source. It can be helpful to have a working bibliography as you go, with a backup of the computer file and/or a print-out. Although it is not needed for the Works Cited, it may also be helpful to keep a record of how you located each source, such as the call numbers of books and URLs of web sites.

BOOKS [5.5]

Books [5.5.1]

Author. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Type of Material.

This is the basic format for a Works Cited entry.


  • Take the title from the title page, not the cover.
  • The book title should be italicized.
  • Capitalize the first letter of the first word, last word, and all major words of the title and subtitle, including words that follow hyphens, e.g., English-Speaking.
  • The following terms should not be capitalized when they are in the middle of a title: articles (a, an, the), conjunctions (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet), prepositions (e.g., in, of, to, between, against), and the "to" in infinitives, e.g., How to Solve It. [3.6.1]

Publisher [7.5]

  • Give the city of publication and the publisher's name, generally taken from the title page. The state or country is not necessary.
  • Shorten the publisher's name when possible, by omitting business abbreviations such as Corp. and words such as Books and Publishers.
  • For publisher's names that are personal names, use the surname only, e.g., for John Wiley, use Wiley.
  • For university presses, use U for University and P for Press, e.g., Princeton UP.

One Author [5.5.2]

  • Write the author's name as Last Name, First Name.

Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999. Print.

Two or More Authors [5.5.4]

  • List the names in the order they appear on the title page, with commas between authors, and a period after the last author's name.
  • Only the name of the first author should be reversed (Last Name, First Name); the other name(s) should be written in regular order.
  • For more than three authors, either give only the first author and add et al., or give all the names.

King, Samuel P., and Randall W. Roth. Broken Trust: Greed, Mismanagement, and Political Manipulation at America's Largest Charitable Trust. Honolulu: U of Hawaii P, 2006. Print.

Laverty, Melina F., Eleanor J. Sterling, Amelia Chiles, and Georgina Cullman. Biodiversity 101. Westport: Greenwood, 2008. Print.

Editors, Compilers, Translators [5.5.4]

If the persons named on the title page are editors, compilers, or translators, add a comma and a descriptive label, e.g., eds., comps., trans.

Lucas, John S., and Paul C. Southgate, eds. Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003. Print.

Corporate Author [5.5.5]

Cite a book by corporate author when a group -- such as an organization, committee, or association -- rather than individual persons, is the author. Cite the corporate author even if this group is also the publisher.

American Welding Society Committee on High-Energy Beam Welding and Cutting. Process Specification and Operator Qualification for Laser Beam Welding. Miami: American Welding Society, 2008. Print.

Government Publications [5.5.20]

Generally, give the name of the government first, then the name of the agency.

State of Hawaii. Dept. of Business, Economic Development and Tourism. Visitors Research Report. Honolulu: DBEDT, 2007. Print.

Edition [5.5.13]

If a book is identified as being other than the first edition (e.g., 2nd edition, Revised edition), give the edition just before the publication information.

Gralla, Preston. How Wireless Works. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Que, 2006. Print.

Work in an Anthology [5.5.6]

When citing an essay, short story, or other work that is contained in an anthology or other book collection, provide information about both the piece and the complete book. Provide the name of the editor or compiler of the book, preceded by Ed. or Comp., after the title of the book. Give the page numbers of the piece, writing only the last two digits of the second number unless more are needed, e.g., 125-29, but 185-202.

Author of Story. "Title of Story." Title of Book. Editor. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page(s). Type of Material.

Humphries, LaJean. "How to Evaluate a Web Site." Web of Deception: Misinformation on the Internet. Ed. Anne P. Mintz. Medford: CyberAge, 2002. 165-73. Print.

Book in a Series [5.5.15]

If the title page or other introductory pages indicate that the book is part of a series, give the series name and the series number, if any, at the end of the entry. Abbreviations may be used, including Ser. for series.

Smith, Erik L. "Fighting to Regain Custody of My Son." Adoption. Ed. David M. Haugen and Matthew J. Box. Detroit: Greenhaven, 2006. 36-40. Print. Social Issues Firsthand.

Encyclopedias and Reference Books [5.5.7]

  • Cite an article in an encyclopedia like a work in an anthology, above.
  • When citing familiar reference books, especially those that appear often in new editions, full publication information is not necessary.
  • If articles are arranged alphabetically, volume and page numbers are not necessary.
  • Give the edition (if available) and the year of publication.

Pelley, Patricia M. "Vietnam." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2008 ed. 2008. Print.

  • When citing less familiar or specialized reference books, give full publication information, omitting page numbers if articles are arranged alphabetically.

Author of Article (if given). "Article Title." Title of Reference Book. Editor. Vol. number (if any). City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Page(s). Type of Material.

Butwell, Richard. "Vietnam." Lands and Peoples. Vol. 2. Danbury: Grolier, 2001. 293-302. Print.

  • Providing the number of volumes for multi-volume sets is optional. [5.5.14]

Jamieson, Neil. L. "Vietnamese." Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Ed. David Levinson and Karen Christenson. Vol. 6. New York: Scribner's, 2002. Print. 6 vols.

Two or More Works by the Same Author(s) [5.3.4]

When citing two or more sources by the same author, give the name in the first entry only. For the next entries, type three hyphens, add a period, and skip a space (---. ) then give the title. The three hyphens stand for the name(s) in the preceding entry.

Scott, Susan. Exploring Hanauma Bay. Honolulu: U of Hawaii P, 1993. Print.

---. Plants and Animals of Hawaii. Honolulu: Bess Press, 1991. Print.


Magazine Articles [5.4.6]

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s). Type of Material.


  • Refer to the guidelines for Authors for books, above.
  • If no author's name is given for an article, begin with the title of the article.

"Tweet Liberty." Sports Illustrated 30 Mar. 2009: 18. Print.


  • For magazines issued every week or every two weeks, give the complete date in this order: Day Month Year, e.g., 21 Jan. 2009. Abbreviate the months (except May, June, July).
  • For magazines issued monthly or bi-monthly, give the month(s) and year.

Kelley, Raina. "Octomom Hypocrisy." Newsweek 16 Mar. 2009: 58. Print.

Reynolds, Kim. "Body Doubles." Motor Trend May 2009: 52-60. Print.

Volume and Issue Numbers

  • Do not give volume and issue numbers for magazine articles.
    (Volume and issue numbers, are given for scholarly journal articles, however. See below.)

Page Number(s)

  • If the article is on consecutive pages, specify the page numbers of the entire article, e.g., 16-20. Give just the last two digits of the second number, when possible, e.g. 188-89, but 196-200.
  • If the article is not on consecutive pages -- for example, it begins on page 27, then skips to page 30, and continues on page 32 -- write only the first page number, followed by a plus sign: 27+.

Estroff, Sharon Duke. "I Was an Undercover Penguin." Good Housekeeping Feb. 2009: 99+. Print.

Scholarly Journal Articles [5.4.2]

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume number.Issue number (Year): Pages. Type of Material.


Refer to the guidelines for Authors when citing books, above.

Volume and Issue Numbers

Write the volume number, a period, then the issue number, e.g. for volume 22, issue 4:   22.4

Page Numbers

Specify the page numbers of the entire article, giving only the last two digits of the second number unless more are needed, e.g., 480-95, but 480-502. If an article is not on consecutive pages, give only the first page number followed by a plus sign: 480+.

Baskin, Yvonne. "Sea Sickness: The Upsurge in Marine Diseases." Bioscience 56.6 (2006): 464-69. Print.

Davis, William D., Thomas Cleary, Michelle Donnelly, and Samuel Hellerman. "Using Sensor Signals to Analyze Fires." Fire Technology 39.4 (2003): 295-308. Print.

Newspaper Articles. [5.4.5]

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper Date, edition: Page(s). Type of Material.

Title of Newspaper

  • Write the title as it appears on the masthead, omitting any introductory article: Honolulu Advertiser, not The Honolulu Advertiser.
  • If the city of publication of a local newspaper is not part of the title, give it in square brackets, e.g., News and Observer [Raleigh]. The city of publication is not necessary for nationally published newspapers, e.g., Wall Street Journal.

Date and Edition

  • Give the date in this order: Day Month Year, e.g., 31 Aug. 2008. Abbreviate the months (except May, June, July).
  • If an edition is specified on the masthead, add it after the date.

Volume, Issue, and Page Number(s)

  • If the article is not on consecutive pages, write only the first page number, followed by a plus sign: A1+.
  • Do not give volume and issue numbers for newspaper articles.

Boylan, Peter. "Man Pleads Guilty to Fraud." Honolulu Advertiser 17 Apr. 2009, home final ed.: B1+. Print.

Dreazen, Yochi J., and Loretta Chao. "U.S. Asks China to Account for Tiananmen." Wall Street Journal 4 June 2009: A8. Print.

Kalani, Nanea. "Stimulus Money for Technology Available, Could Be Hard to Get." Pacific Business News [Honolulu] 5 June 2009: 4. Print.

Editorials [5.4.10]

Follow the format for articles, and add the term Editorial after the article title.

"Don't Block Preschool Funds." Editorial. Honolulu Star Bulletin 13 Apr. 2009: 20. Print.

WEB [5.6]

Web Sites [5.6.2]

When citing web sites, include the author, title, and publication information as for print sources (see above), and add the date of access, because web pages are often updated or moved. All components in the format below may not be identifiable for a web site; include as much as is available.

Author. "Title of the Web Page." Title of the Overall Web Site. Version or Edition. Publisher or Sponsor, Date. Web. Date of Access.


Refer to the guidelines for Authors when citing books, above.


Write the title of the web page in italics if it is independent or shares the same name as the overall web site.

Publisher or Sponsor of the Web Site

If none is indicated, use N.p.


If a complete date is given, write it in the order: Day Month Year. If no publication date is indicated, write n.d.

Altonn, Helen. "Marine Team Sounds Alarm for Reefs." Star Bulletin, 29 Aug. 2008. Web. 17 June 2009.

"Hawaii Drunk Driving Statistics." Alcohol Alert. KeRo, 2009. Web. 17 Mar. 2009.

Holahan, Catherine. "Eddie Bauer Files for Bankruptcy." MSN Money. Microsoft, 17 June 2009. Web. 17 June 2009.

Landau, Elizabeth. "CDC: Swine Flu Viruses in U.S. and Mexico Match." CNN Cable News Network, 25 Apr. 2009. Web. 17 June 2009.

Lehrman, Lewis E. Lincoln at Peoria. Lincoln Institute, n.d. Web. 17 June 2009.

The URL of the web site is optional. Provide the URL if the site is difficult to find, or if the instructor requires it. Write the URL at the end of the entry, enclosed in angle brackets. If the URL must be divided between lines, break it after a slash.

"The Norwegian Pirate Whaling Fleet." Sea Shepherd. Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, 2009. Web. 17 June 2009.

Library Subscription Services [5.6.4]

Honolulu Community College (HCC) Library subscribes to services that provide full-text of publications on the Web. Works Cited entries for these publications should include information about the original print materials (using the formats above), plus information identifying the online database and the date of access. The name of the database is very important for retrieving the publication. The access date should be specified because online content changes constantly.

Articles on the web may not have page numbers; when page numbers are not given, write n.pag.

Magazine Articles

Refer to the format for Magazine Articles in print, above.

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Magazine Date: Page(s). Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.

Britt, Phillip. "Taking the Byte Out of Cybercrime." Information Today Dec. 2008: 1+. General OneFile. Web. 8 June 2009.

Shapiro, Bruce. "The Executioner's Last Song." Nation 13 Apr. 2009: 5. Academic Search Premier. Web. 8 June 2009.

Scholarly Journal Articles

Refer to the format for Scholarly Journal Articles in print, above.

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Journal Volume number.Issue number (Year): Pages. Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.

Pickett, William, Ronald J. Iannotti, Bruce Simons-Morton, and Suzanne Dostaler. "Social Environments and Physical Aggression Among 21,107 Students in the United States and Canada." Journal of School Health 79.4 (2009): 160-68. Expanded Academic ASAP. Web. 8 June 2009.

Newspaper Articles

Refer to the format for Newspaper Articles in print, above.

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper Date, edition: Page(s). Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.

Lowy, Joan. "High Gas Prices Drive Down Traffic Fatalities." Washington Times 25 Aug. 2008: n. pag. SIRS Researcher. Web. 8 June 2009.

Electronic Books

Refer to the format for Books in print, above.

Author. Title of Book. City of Publication: Publisher, Year. Online Database Name. Web. Date of Access.

Kawamura, Yuniya. Fashion-ology: An Introduction to Fashion Studies. Oxford: Berg, 2005. ebrary. Web. 8 June 2009.


Television Broadcast [5.7.1]

"Title of Episode." (if available) Title of Program. Responsible Person(s). Name of Network. Call letters of local station (if any), City, Broadcast Date. Television.

"The Graying of Hawaii." Insights on PBS Hawaii. Prod. Mark Delorme and Audrey Kubota. PBS. KHET, Honolulu, 18 June 2009. Television.

"A Vow of Silence." Forensic Files. Narr. Peter Thomas. Prod. Stephanie Kovac. TruTV. 14 June 2009. Television.

Videorecording [5.7.3]

Title of Video. Director's Name. (and/or other Responsible Person(s)) Distributor, Year. Type of Media.

Mardi Gras: Made in China. Dir. David Redmon. Carnivalesque Films, 2008. DVD.

Picasso. Commentary by Waldemar Januszczak. Dir. Didier Baussy. Home Vision, 1985. Videocassette.

Interview Conducted By the Student [5.7.7]

Name of Person Interviewed. Type of interview. (Personal or Telephone) Date.

Kato, Ken. Personal interview. 11 Apr. 2009.

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