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Kansas Territory Bibliography

Compiled by Virgil W. Dean, Craig Miner, and Homer E. Socolofsky

Originally compiled as a project of the Kansas Territorial Sesquicentennial Commission by Dr. Virgil W. Dean, Kansas State Historical Society; Dr. Craig Miner, Wichita State University; and Dr. Homer E. Socolofsky, Kansas State University.  Not all entries are held by KSHS.


"Bleeding Kansas"--Border Disputes and Warfare

Settlement and Development


Social Life and Customs

Biographies and Autobiographies

General and Historiographical Works


The Kansas-Nebraska Act and the “Kansas Question”

On the National Stage

Ayres, Carol Dark,Lincoln and Kansas: Partnership for Freedom.Manhattan, Kans.: Sunflower University Press, 2001. Abraham Lincoln's brief 1859 trip from Elwood to Leavenworth, K.T., received relatively slight press coverage at the time, but Ayres marshaled the available primary and secondary sources to chronicle that story in detail in two of her six chapters; the others serve as historical context.

Fehrenbacher, Don E.The South and Three Sectional Crises.Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1980. The author's three crises are the Missouri Compromise, the Wilmot Proviso, and “Kansas, Republicanism and the Crisis of Union.”

Gara, Larry.The Liberty Line: The Legend of the Underground Railroad.Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 1961. In this important study for the famed UGRR, Gara questioned the railroads actual importance, with respect to real numbers and impact.

Gienapp, William E. "The Crime against Sumner: The Caning of Charles Sumner and the Rise of the Republican Party."Civil War History25 (September 1979): 218-45. The success of this fledgling party was by no means certain in 1855 and early 1856; but Congressman Preston Brooks’ May 22, 1856, "assault was of critical importance in transforming the struggling Republican party into a major political force."

Gladstone, Thomas H.The Englishman in Kansas; or, Squatter Life and Border Warfare . . . With Intro. by Fred. Law Olmstead. 1857. Reprint. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1971. This edition includes and introduction by historian James A. Rawley.

Hart, Charles. “The Natural Limits of Slavery Expansion: Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854.”Kansas Historical Quarterly34 (Spring 1968): 32-50. Hart examined the “survivability” issue with respect to these western territories in light of the contemporary evidence (i.e., 1854 congressional debates), rather than through “historical hindsight,” and concluded “many people living in the 1850s were convinced that Kansas and Nebraska were well within the natural limits of slavery expansion.”

Hodder, Frank Heywood. “The Genesis of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.”Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin for 1912.Madison: State Historical Society, 1913. Hodder, a professor of history at the University of Kansas, focused on Senator Stephen Douglas, a typical American politician of the 1850s who “was controlled by devotion to the development of the West.”

Hodder, Frank Heywood. “The Railroad Background of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill.”Mississippi Valley Historical Review12 (June 1925): 3-22. The author began by calling attention to the railroad as “the most important factor controlling” the settlement of the West and the “principal means of its development”; thus, Senator Douglas’s interest in them should not be surprising.

Hodder, Frank Heywood. “Some Aspects of the English Bill for the Admission of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection,1907-1908 10 (1908): 224-232. In essence, provided for resubmission of the controversial Lecompton Constitution; Kansas voters overwhelmingly rejected the pro-slave document at the August 2, 1858, referendum.

Holliday, Cyrus K. “The Presidential Campaign of 1856—The Fremont Campaign.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1891-1896 5 (1896): 48-68. For his KSHS presidential address, delivered January 20, 1891, focused on the Republican Party’s first presidential campaign in which the Kansas Question was the central issue.

Johannsen, Robert W.Stephen A. Douglas. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973. An important biography of the "Little Giant" who played a pivotal role in the sectional debate throughout the 1850s.

Johannsen, Robert W. “Stephen A. Douglas, `Harper's Magazine,' and Popular Sovereignty.”Mississippi Valley Historical Review45 (March 1959): 606-631. Holds that popular sovereignty (the principle of letting people of the territories vote slavery up or down) was Douglas’ main motivation for the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Lowell, James H. “The Romantic Growth of a Law Court.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1919-1922 15 (1922): 590-597. Some early (1850s) legal history with special attention to Holton, Jackson County.

Malin, James C. “Aspects of the Nebraska Question, 1852-1854.”Kansas Historical Quarterly20 (May 1953): 385-391. While reflecting Malin’s “needless war” revisionism, this article focuses on issues and individuals involved in the pre-Douglas (Kansas-Nebraska) bill efforts to covertly make all of Nebraska Territory a slave state.

Malin, James C. “The Motives of Stephen A. Douglas in the Organization of Nebraska Territory: A Letter Dated December 17, 1853.”Kansas Historical Quarterly19 (November 1951): 321-353. The article examines the Illinois senator's commitment to the north-central route for Pacific railroad as motivation for the Kansas-Nebraska bill, quoting extensively from the accounts of Douglas contemporaries James W. Sheahan and James M. Cutts, and concludes with a reprint of the Douglas letter.

Malin, James C. “The Nebraska Question: A Ten Year Record, 1844-1854.”Nebraska History35 (March 1954): 1-15. That portion of the “Indian County” destined to become the territories of Nebraska and Kansas on May 30, 1854, was first call just “Nebraska,” and, according to Professor Malin, “the original focus on Nebraska, the Platte Valley, and the Pacific railroad, was lost in the controversy over slavery.”

Malin, James C.The Nebraska Question, 1852-1854. Lawrence, Kans.: James C. Malin, 1953. Malin began the work that resulted in this volume as a student of Frank Hodder’s at the University of Kansas; it consists of a detailed examination of the evolution of the Kansas-Nebraska Act.

Meerse, David E. “Presidential Leadership, Suffrage Qualifications, and Kansas: 1857.”Civil War History24 (December 1978): 293-313. Meerse discussed the traditional view of a failed and inept Buchanan administration and its confrontation with Governor Robert Walker; after reexamining the affair, the author concludes that Buchanan deserves more credit for decisive action.

Pierson, Michael D., "‘All Southern Society Is Assailed by the Foulest Charges’: Charles Sumner’s ‘The Crime against Kansas’ and the Escalation of Republican Anti-slavery Rhetoric."New England Quarterly68 (December 1995): 531-557. Pierson provides a detailed analysis of the famous May 1856 speech, that provoked a vicious physical assault on the senator, as well as some political context for Sumner and the nation in the early 1850s.

Rawley, James.Race and Politics: "Bleeding Kansas" and the Coming of the Civil War. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1969. Concentrating on the years 1854-1858 when “Kansas was the keynote of United States politics,” Rawley argues that America was a land of “racialists” and thus race, not slavery, was the fundamental issue to be settled in Kansas Territory.

Rhodes, Charles Harker. “The Significance of Kansas History.”Kansas Historical Collections11 (1909-1910): 1-4. Its political struggles of 1850s, Harker argued, made Kansas history unique.

Siebert, Wilbur H.The Underground Railroad: From Slavery to Freedom. New York: Macmillan Co., 1898. A classic, traditional account of the railroad's activities and its central place in the abolitionist movement.

Smith, Elbert B.The Presidency of James Buchanan.Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1976. Kansas issues were central during Buchanan administration (1857-1861); this is a volume in the press’s “American Presidency Series.”

U. S. Congress, House of Representatives.Report of the Special Committee Appointed to Investigate the Troubles in Kansas; With the Views of the Minority of Said Committee.Report No. 200, 34th Congress, 1st Session, 1856. An elaborate report, giving majority and minority views. Congressional publications, including the Globe, are replete with items pertaining to the Kansas question during the 1850s.

Weisberger, Bernard A. “The Newspaper Reporter and the Kansas Imbroglio.”Mississippi Valley Historical Review36 (March 1950): 633-656. Making reference to several specific territorial Kansas journalists, the author argues that with their “turbulent and thunderous name-calling” these writers helped make the Kansas Question “one of absolute rights and wrongs.”

Within the Territory

Adams, Franklin G. “The Capitals of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 331-351. The late journalist, freestater, and first really permanent director/secretary of the KSHS discussed the capitals of Fort Leavenworth, Shawnee Mission, Pawnee, Lecompton, Minneola, and finally Topeka, with information on the construction of state capitol.

Baltimore, Lester B. “Benjamin F. Stringfellow: Fight for Slavery on the Missouri Border.”Missouri Historical Review62 (October 1967): 14-29. The Virginian-born (1816) Stringfellow, who moved to Missouri in 1838, took the extremist position in the defense of slavery in western Missouri and was highly critical of Leavenworth “abolitionists” as early as July 1854.

Brewerton, George Douglas.The War in Kansas. A Rough Trip to the Border, Among New Homes and a Strange People.New York: Derby & Jackson, 1856. The author of this 400-page book claimed to be reporting the truth of the important events of the day in Kansas and to be on “neither side of this unhappy quarrel.”

Gihon, John H.Geary and Kansas. Governor Geary's Administration in Kansas. With a Complete History of the Territory. Until 1857. Embracing a Full Account of its Discovery, Geography, Soil, Rivers, Climate, Products; Its Organization as a Territory . . .Philadelphia: J. H. C. Whiting, 1857. Dr. Gihon was Geary's private secretary.

Johnson, David W. “Freesoilers for God: Kansas Newspaper Editors and the Antislavery Crusade.”Kansas History2 (Summer 1979): 74-85. The author highlights more than half a dozen free state advocates in territorial Kansas, including George W. Brown, Josiah Miller, John Speer and T. Dwight Thacher.

Joy, Mark S. “Caleb May: Kansas Territorial Pioneer and Politician.”The Prairie Scout5 (1985): 94-117. May, a freestater from Atchison County, was one of two men to serve as a delegate in three Kansas constitutional conventions.

Learnard, O. E. “Organization of the Republican Party.”Kansas Historical Collection6 (1897-1900): 312-316. Lawrence’s Oscar E. Learnard’s account of the meeting at Osawatomie in May 1859 that birthed the Kansas Republican Party.

Lewis, Lloyd. “Propaganda and the Kansas-Missouri War.”Missouri Historical Review34 (October 1939): 9-17. After the Civil War, Missouri was identified in the North as “a semi-hostile community,” according to Lewis, in part because antebellum Northerners held “superior propoganda skills” and won that “war” too.

Martin, George W.The First Two Years of Kansas; or, Where, when and how the Missouri bushwhacker, the Missouri train and bank robber, and those who stole themselves rich in the name of liberty, were sired and reared . . .Topeka, Kans.: State Printing Office, 1907. A speech delivered several times in 1906 and 1907 based on early newspapers and Martin’s interviews with early settlers.

McClure, James R. “Taking the Census and Other Incidents in 1855.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 227-250. The recollections of an Indiana lawyer and “Douglas Democrat” who removed to Kansas in October 1854.

Mullis, Tony R. “John Geary, Kansas, and the 1856 National Election.”Heritage of the Great Plains25 (Winter 1992): 13-24. Governor Geary's timely “quelling of violence in `Bleeding Kansas',” although only a temporary pacification, “virtually assured James Buchanan and the Democratic Party success in November.”

Robinson, Sara T. D.Kansas: Its Exterior and Interior Life: Including a full view of its Settlement, Political History, Social life, Climate, Soil, Production, Scenery, etc. 1856.Reprint. Lawrence: Kansas Heritage Press, 1990. Although its biases are obvious, this is an interesting and useful account by the wife of Dr. Charles Robinson, free-state leader and first state governor.

Shenton, James P.Robert John Walker: A Politician from Jackson to Lincoln.New York: Columbia University Press, 1961. Walker, a prominent Pennsylvania Democrat, accepted appointed as territorial governor of Kansas in 1857.

Smith, Robert Emmett. “Indian Agent William Gay: A Victim of Bleeding Kansas.”Westport Historical Quarterly10 (December 1974): 74-85. A native of New York and a 51-year-old father of two, Gay accepted a position in Kansas Territory in early 1856 and was murdered by some of Buford’s South Carolina Company in western Missouri in June 1856.

Tinkcom, Harry M.John White Geary: Soldier-Statesman, 1819-1873.Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1940. Territorial governor (1856-1857) who, despite his Democratic background, developed close ties with many free-state leaders.

Tomlinson, William P.Kansas in Eighteen Fifty-eight. Being Chiefly a History of the Recent Troubles in the Territory.New York: H. Dayton, Publisher, 1859. Dedicated to “Rev. Henry Ward Beecher, the unwavering friend of Kansas,” Tomlinson’s was an “unwavering” defense of the Free-State cause in the wake of the “Fort Scott Difficulties” of 1858; he also provided interesting descriptions of settlements and developments from Lawrence south to Fort Scott.

Wolff, Gerald W.The Kansas-Nebraska Bill: Party, Section, and the Coming of the Civil War.New York: Revisionist Press, 1977. Based on his 1969 University of Iowa doctoral dissertation, Wolff’s Kansas-Nebraska Bill examined voting records of the Thirty-third Congress on Homestead and tariff issues and concluded that party spirit or loyalty survived the divisive Kansas-Nebraska debate.

Wolff, Gerald W. “Party and Section: The Senate and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill.”Civil War History18 (December 1972): 293-311. Wolff’s scalogram analysis of seven senatorial votes demonstrated a “partial triumph of party allegiances over sectional considerations.

The Territorial Government

Andrews, Horace, Jr. “Kansas Crusade: Eli Thayer and the New England Emigrant Aid Company.”New England Quarterly35 (December 1962): 497-514. Andrews argued that “without Eli Thayer”—who refused to view Kansas as a lost cause and incorporated the Aid Company a month before the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act—“there might never have been a Kansas crusade.”

Beezley, William H. “Land-Office Spoilsmen in `Bleeding Kansas'.”Great Plains Journal9 (Spring 1970): 67-78. The article’s focus is mostly directed at John Calhoun, the pro-slave, surveyor general for Kansas and Nebraska.

"Biographies of Members of the Free State Territorial Legislature of 1857.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1907-190810 (1908): 204-216. Brief biographical sketches of most members of Council and House of Representatives.

Caldwell, Martha B. “The Eldridge House.”Kansas Historical Quarterly9 (November 1940): 347-370. From its beginnings as the free-state headquarters in 1854-55, Caldwell offers a history of this Lawrence, Kansas, icon through the construction of the fourth and final hotel building in the 1920s, but her focus is the first decade.

Cecil-Fronsman, Bill. “`Advocate the Freedom of White Men, As Well As That of the Negroes': The Kansas Free State and Antislavery Westerns in Territorial Kansas.”Kansas History20 (Summer 1997): 102-115. The focus is on editors Robert G. Elliott and Josiah Miller, who substantially contributed to “the successful establishment of the Kansas free-state movement.”

Cecil-Fronsman, Bill. “`Death to all Yankees and Traitors in Kansas': The Squatter Sovereign and the Defense of Slavery in Kansas.”Kansas History16 (Spring 1993): 22-33. Subsidized by the town company and edited by Kelley and Stringfellow, Atchison's pro-slave newspaper, moderated its tone once the political battle was lost and became Freedom's Champion when John A. Martin took it over in 1858.

Cheatham, Gary L. “‘Kansas Shall Not Have the Right to Legislate Slavery Out’: The Failure of the 1860 Antislavery Law.”Kansas History23 (Autumn 2000): 154-171. The Republican legislature of 1860 failed in its effort to eradicate the “peculiar institution” in the territory, despite its passage of an antislavery law, as the statute was declared unconstitutional by the territorial District Court at Leavenworth in late December 1860 and unceremoniously became moot with Kansas admission to the Union, January 29, 1861.

Collins, Bruce W. “The Democrats' Electoral Fortunes During the Lecompton Crisis.”Civil War History24 (December 1978): 314-331. Based on his analysis of election results, Collins argued that historians of the late 1850s had “underestimated the popular support enjoyed by the Democrats in the North even when a Democratic President pursued a pro-Southern policy.”

Connelley, William E. “The East Boundary Line of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1909-191011 (1910): 75-80. A map of the Kansas City area companies this discussion of a long-standing dispute between Kansas and Missouri.

Connelley, William E.Kansas Territorial Governors.Topeka, Kans.: Crane & Co., 1900. Brief biographical sketches of the ten men who served the territory as governor and/or acting governor.

Cory, C. E. “Slavery in Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collections7 (1901-1902): 229-242. The legal status of slavery is examined; some individual slave accounts also are provided.

Craik, Elmer LeRoy. “Southern Interest in Territorial Kansas, 1854-1858.”Kansas Historical Collections15 (1919-1922): 334-450. Craik’s 1922 University of Kansas doctoral dissertation remains an important and useful study of the central issues that made Kansas a battle ground; it reflects a great deal of newspaper research in particular.

Crafton, Allen.Free State Fortress: The First Ten Years of the History of Lawrence, Kansas.Lawrence, Kans.: World Co., 1954. A centennial history by a Lawrence resident, Free State Fortress offers a detailed examination of events in and around Lawrence from September 1854 through September 1864; the absence of citations is unfortunate.

Denver, James W. "Address of Ex-Governor James W. Denver. Delivered at the Old Settlers’ Meeting, Bismarck Grove, Lawrence, September 3, 1884."Kansas Historical Collections, 1883-18853 (1886): 359-366. Denver, who was territorial governor from December 1857, to October 1858, here offered a personal account of events of twenty-five years earlier.

"Documentary History of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1891-18965 (1896): 156-633. Beginning with biographical sketch of some of the principals, “the papers which here follow . . . are intended to complete the documentary history of Kansas Territory.” Papers from the Reeder, Shannon, and Geary administrations are included, as are “the executive minutes and official papers” of governors Robert J. Walker, James W. Denver, and Samuel Medary.

Doy, John.The Narrative of John Doy, of Lawrence, Kansas.New York: T. Holman, printer, 1860. Dr. Doy, a member of the first Emigrant Aid party to reach Lawrence in August 1854, devoted most of his 130-plus pages to the story of his efforts to help kidnapped or “fugitive” African Americans, his capture and trial and conviction for “negro stealing,” and his subsequent “rescue” from the St. Joseph jail.

Eldridge, Shalor Winchell.Recollections of Early Days in Kansas.Topeka: Publications of the Kansas State Historical Society, Kansas State Printing Plant, 1920. Colonel Eldridge’s “eye-witness” history of the settlement of Lawrence and the territorial struggle for freedom, through the Civil War and Quantrill’s raid.

Elliott, R. G. “The Grasshopper Falls Convention and the Legislature of 1857.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1907-1908 10 (1908): 182-196. Includes an address delivered in December 1907 and his autobiography.

"First Appearance of Kansas at a National Convention.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1909-191011 (1910): 12-18. Founded in 1854, the Republican Party held its first national convention in 1956 and its second, the first to include Kansas delegates, at Chicago, 1860.

Fleming, Walter L. “The Buford Expedition to Kansas.”American Historical Review6 (October 1900): 38-48. One of a very few colonizing efforts made by Southerners; about 400 men, mostly from Alabama and South Carolina, arrived in Kansas on May 2, 1856.

Gardner, Theodore. “Andrew H. Reeder, First Territorial Governor.”Kansas Historical Collections16 (1923-1925): 582-585. A sketch of Reeder’s brief tenure (1854-1855) and subsequent flight from territory disguised as “wood chopper.”

Geary, John W. “Governor Geary's Administration."Kansas Historical Collection, 1886-18884 (1890): 373-745. A biographical sketch of John White Geary is followed by a variety of documents including “President Pierce's Message, 1856,” the “Correspondence of Governor Wilson Shannon,” the “Correspondence of Governor Geary,” the “Executive Minutes of Governor John W. Geary,” and the “Executive Minutes of Daniel Woodson, Acting Governor from March 11, 1857, to March 31, 1857, Inclusive.”

"Governor Andrew H. Reeder.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1875-18781-2 (1881): 145-156. Biographical sketch of first territorial governor from Kansas Weekly Herald, September 15, 1854, followed by comments on his years in Kansas by prominent contemporaries.

"Governor George M. Beebe.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1926-192817 (1928): 618-623. A biographical sketch of Kansas’ last territorial governor who was just twenty-four years old when he took office.

Greene, Albert R. “United States Land-Offices in Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-19048 (1904): 1-13. Includes a list of officials and a map, “Kansas Territory in 1856.”

Harlow, Ralph Volney. “The Rise and Fall of the Kansas Aid Movement.”American Historical Review41 (October 1935): 1-25. Harlow dealt with Eli Thayer’s Emigrant Aid Company, as well as the bigger “Kansas Aid Movement,” and concluded that, although they stirred up much bitterness and hate in the North and the South, “the emigrant aid companies and committees had practically nothing to do with making Kansas a free state”—western pioneers did that.

Hickman, Russell K. “The Reeder Administration Inaugurated: Part I, “The Delegate Election of November, 1854."Kansas Historical Quarterly36 (Autumn 1970): 305-340; Part II, “The Census of Early 1855,” 36 (Winter 1970):424-455. A proslave candidate, John W. Whitfield, was elected first territorial delegate to Congress; part two contains census data preliminary to the first legislative election, March 1855.

Hoole, William Stanley, editor. “A Southerner's Viewpoint of the Kansas Situation, 1856-1857: The Letters of Lieut. Col. A. J. Hoole, C. S. A.”Kansas Historical Quarterly3 (February 1934): 43-68; concluded 3 (May 1934): 145-171. Letters written to family members in South Carolina; Hoole was politically active during his stay in K.T., serving briefly as probate judge of Douglas County.

Johnson, C. W. “Survey of the Northern Boundary Line of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-19027 (1902): 318-322. Carried out per instructions of the surveyor-general in 1854 and 1855.

Johnson, Samuel A.The Battle Cry of Freedom: The New England Emigrant Aid Company in the Kansas Crusade.Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1954. Johnson’s is a thoroughly documented account of the Company’s “relationship . . . to the Kansas Conflict” and other major and related events of the 1850s.

Johnson, Samuel A. “The Emigrant Aid Company in Kansas.”Kansas Historical Quarterly1 (November 1932): 429-441. Kansas “historians” had debated the relative significance of the New England Emigrant Aid Company in making Kansas free for years; Johnson concludes that it was of great importance, if not a deciding factor, in the struggle.

Johnson, Samuel A. “The Emigrant Aid Company in the Kansas Conflict.”Kansas Historical Quarterly6 (February 1937): 21-33. Rumors about the nature and objectives of the New England Emigrant Aid Company “furnished the excuse, and in some measure the provocation, for the Missouri invasion.”

Johnson, Samuel A. “The Genesis of the New England Emigrant Aid Company.”New England Quarterly3 (January 1930): 95-122. Johnson included a list of directors and stockholders in this examination of the company’s Kansas troubles and controversies.

Kansas State Historical Society. The Old Pawnee Capitol, an account of the first capitol building of Kansas, the town of Pawnee, initial sessions of the first territorial legislature, destruction of the town of Pawnee . . . Topeka, Kans.: B. P. Walker, State Printer, 1928.

"Kansas Territorial Publications.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-19006 (1900): 394-418. An extensive list of sources produced during the period with name indexes to claims made in the Strickler and Hoogland reports.

Lecompte, Samuel D. “A Defense By Samuel D. Lecompte.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-19048 (1904): 389-405. First published in Sol Miller's Troy Chief, February 4, 1875; concerning Lecompte’s controversial tenure as chief justice of Kansas territorial court, 1854-1859.

Lowrey, Grosvenoir P. “Biography of Governor Andrew H. Reeder.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1883-18853 (1886): 197-205; 205-223. The biographical sketch was based on information provided by Lowrey, the governor’s private secretary; it is followed by an account of “Governor Reeder's Escape from Kansas,” taken from Reeder's diary.

Malin, James C. “The Pro-Slavery Background of the Kansas Struggle.”Mississippi Valley Historical Review10 (December 1923): 285-305. Most of the published “materials” about this most controversial of incidents, insisted Malin, was “propaganda, pure and simple, even when disguised under the designation of true and impartial history.”

Martin, George W. “Early Days in Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1905-19069 (1906): 126-143. Although territorial settlers were “overwhelmingly Middle states and Western people,” New Englanders were the early “bosses.”

Meerse, David E. “The 1857 Territorial Delegate Election Contest.”Kansas History4 (Summer 1981): 96-113. Meerse examines the highly significant October 1857 balloting, which resulted in the election of a free-state legislature and delegate to Congress, Marcus J. Parrott.

Miller, Nyle H., editor. “Surveying the Southern Boundary Line of Kansas: From the Private Journal of Col. Joseph E. Johnston.”Kansas Historical Quarterly1 (February 1932): 104-139. Official survey to set dividing line between Kansas and Indian Territory conducted in 1857.

Moore, Ely, Jr. “The Story of Lecompton.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1909-191011 (1910): 463-480. the author's father (Ely, Sr.) was the first register at Lecompton's federal land office.

Morrall, Albert. “Dr. Albert Morrall: Proslavery Soldier in Kansas in 1856.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1915-191813 (1918): 123-142. Morrall came to Kansas in 1856 with a military company from South Carolina.

O'Connor, Thomas H. “Cotton Whigs in Kansas.”Kansas Historical Quarterly26 (Spring 1960): 34-58. “Cotton Whigs” were New Englanders who backed the movement to make Kansas a free state, in part because they were outraged by the Kansas-Nebraska Act’s repeal of the venerated Missouri Compromise, but did not hold to abolitionist principles.

Phillips, William A.The Conquest of Kansas by Missouri and Her Allies: A History of the Troubles in Kansas, from the Passage of the Organic Act Until the Close of July, 1856.1856. Reprint. Freeport, N.Y.: Books for Libraries Press, 1971. Written in 1856, Phillips, a Scottish immigrant who was affiliated with the New York Tribune when he first came to Kansas in 1855, recounted an “early and unhappy history of Kansas.”

Reeder, Andrew H. “Executive Minutes. Minutes Recorded in the Governor’s Office During the Administration of Governor Andrew H. Reeder.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1883-18853 (1886): 226-278. The official records begin with Reeder’s commission, issued June 29, 1854, and continue through the end of his administration, August 16, 1855.

Richmond, Robert W. “The First Capitol of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Quarterly21 (Spring 1955): 321-325. This “capitol” was located at Pawnee, near Fort Riley, and was the site of the initial session of the first territorial legislature, July 1855.

Robinson, Charles. “Address of Governor Robinson.”Kansas Historical Collections 1875-18781-2 (1881):115-130. The “free-state governor” and state of Kansas’s first chief executive, here offers his “recollections and impressions” of six of ten territorial governors of Kansas.

Rutherford, Phillip R. “The Arabia Incident.”Kansas History, 1(Spring 1978): 39-47. Pro-slavery sympathizers confiscated a cache of Sharps rifles on board this now famous (i.e., Steamboat Arabia museum in Kansas City, Missouri) river steamer in May 1856.

Sanborn, Franklin B. “Some Notes on the Territorial History of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1913-191413 (1914): 249-265. Comments on papers of Thomas Wentworth Higginson, a free-state leader, followed by letters of T. J. Marsh, pertaining to territorial election of 1857, and Colonel James Montgomery, the Linn County “Jayhawker.”

Shannon, Wilson. “Executive Minutes. Minutes Recorded in the Governor’s Office During the Administration of Governor Wilson Shannon, Including also those Recorded in the Intervals in which Secretary Daniel Woodson was Acting Governor.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1883-18853 (1886): 283-337. The minutes cover the period August 31, 1855, to September 20, 1856; they are preceded by short “Biography of Governor Wilson Shannon” by B. F. Simpson, pages 279-283.

Shindler, Henry. “The First Capital of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-191212 (1912): 331-337. Despite designation of Pawnee as first territorial capital, Fort Leavenworth was first seat of government established when Andrew Reeder arrived there in October 1854.

Shoemaker, Floyd C. “Missouri's Proslavery Fight for Kansas.” [Part I]Missouri Historical Review48 (April 1954): 221-236; [Part II] 48 (July 1954): 325-340; and [Part III] 49 (October 1954): 41-54. Opening his three-part essay on the seminal struggle for Kansas, the author observed that to date “the dearth” of published material by Missouri historians was “almost unbelievable”; a version of this work was first published in the author’s Missouri and Missourians: Land of Contrasts and People of Achievements (1943).

Stanton, Frederick P. “Address at Ex-Governor Frederick P. Stanton. Delivered at the Old Settler's Meeting, Bismarck Grove, Lawrence, September 2, 1884."Kansas Historical Collections3 (1883-1885): 338-358. Stanton offered an account of his role as secretary and acting governor of the territory, April 1857-December 1857.

Thayer, Eli.A History of the Kansas Crusade, Its Friends and Its Foes.New York: Harper & Brothers, 1889. The author was the principal organizer of the New England Emigrant Aid Company, which he held was the savior of Kansas.

"The Topeka Movement.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1913-191413 (1914): 125-249. Reprints many documents, speeches, and official records of this free-state movement, 1855-1857.

Ware, Abby Huntington. “Dispersion of the Territorial Legislature of 1856.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1905-19069 (1906): 540-545. U.S. army dispersed “illegal” free-state legislature meeting at Topeka; includes an article written by James Redpath for the Chicago Tribune, July 4, 1856.

Constitution Making

Cheatham, Gary L. “‘Slavery All the Time or Not At All’: The Wyandotte Constitution Debate, 1859-1861.”Kansas History21 (Autumn 1998): 168-187. The overwhelming electoral success of the Wyandotte Constitution in October 1859 changed the nature of the political debate in Kansas Territory but did not, as Cheatham demonstrates, mean an end to the “opposition,” which continued until the eve of the Civil War to oppose key provisions of the constitution and espouse a pro-Southern ideology.

Connelley, William E. “The First Provisional Constitution of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 97-113. Connelly offers some background on the constitution of “Nebraska” prepared by Wyandot Indians in 1853.

Crawford, George A. “The Candle-box Under the Woodpile.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1907-1908 10 (1908): 196-204. The discovery of fraudulent ballots and revelations regarding John Calhoun’s role in the January 1858 affair caused Governor Robert J. Walker to oppose pro-slave efforts to gain Kansas’s admission under the Lecompton Constitution.

Elbert, E. Duane. “The English Bill: An Attempt to Compromise the Lecompton Dilemma.”Kansas History1 (Winter 1978): 219-234. Introduced by Illinois congressman William H. English, this bill provided for the August 1858 referendum on the constitution and, according to Elbert, managed to “soft pedal Kansas as a national issue, and thus it helped delay the national holocaust for a few more years.”

Elliott, R. G. “The Big Springs Convention.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 362-377. First significant free-state assembly, September 1855, called to counter actions of “bogus” legislature and led to the founding of the Topeka Movement.

Gaeddert, G. Raymond.The Birth of Kansas.Lawrence: University of Kansas Publications, 1940. This detailed and reliable account of political events leading to Kansas statehood emphasizes the Wyandotte convention and constitution of 1859.

Gower, Calvin W. “Kansas Territory and Its Boundary Question: `Big Kansas' or `Little Kansas'.”Kansas Historical Quarterly33 (Spring 1967): 1-12. Gower examines the pros and cons of this issue; the former would have retained the Continental Divide as the state’s western border and extend its northern boundary line to the Platte River.

Johannsen, Robert W. “The Lecompton Constitutional Convention: An Analysis of its Membership.”Kansas Historical Quarterly23 (Autumn 1957): 225-243. Delegates to this 1857 pro-slave gathering, that sparked a major national debate and split the national Democratic Party, were denounced by free-staters at the time and “have been generally condemned by subsequent generations of historians,” but the author’s analysis here reveals a very different convention, far removed from its “Border Ruffian” image.

Kansas Constitutional Convention: A Reprint of the Proceedings and Debates of the Convention which Framed the Constitution of Kansas at Wyandotte in July, 1859.Topeka: Kansas State Printing Plant, 1920. This version of the 1859 proceedings, provides convenient access to most of the documents along with a variety of historical sketches.

Martin, George W. “The Boundary Lines of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1909-1910 11 (1910): 53-74. Martin examines the background and delegate discussions that led to the establishment of the state’s present borders at the Wyandotte Constitutional Convention of 1859.

"Papers Relating to the Constitutions of Kansas, 1855-1861.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 384-393. An elaborate, useful name index of sources for all four conventions and their constitution: Topeka, Lecompton, Leavenworth, and Wyandotte.

Perdue, Rose M. “The Sources of the Constitutions of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 130-151. Perdue’s remains an important work, evaluating as it does the role of various delegates at the Wyandotte Convention and their ties to earlier states of residence and comparing earlier constitutions with the one adopted for Kansas, July 1859.

Price, David H. “Sectionalism in Nebraska: When Kansas Considered Annexing Southern Nebraska, 1856-1860.”Nebraska History53 (Winter 1972): 446-462. The movement to make Nebraska south of the Platte River a part of Kansas Territory began as early as 1856 under the leadership of Sterling Morton, and was championed by the twelve-member honorary delegation from the region that attended the Wyandotte Convention in July 1859.

Robinson, Charles. “Topeka and her Constitution.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 291-305. Personal remembrance of a principal reflecting on Kansas’s first free-state constitution, drafted by a Topeka convention in October 1855.

Simpson, Benjamin F. “The Wyandotte Constitution.”Kansas Historical Collections1875-1878 1-2 (1881): 236-247. At age 23 years, Simpson was the youngest delegate to the 1859 convention; these are his reflections on some of his fellow constitution makers. An address by Simpson, “The Wyandotte Convention,” can be found in the Kansas Historical Collections 3 (1883-1885): 385-389.

Stampp, Kenneth M.America in 1857: A Nation on the Brink.New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. Giving considerable attention given to the Lecompton movement and its nationwide influence, Stampp illuminated President Buchanan’s belief if the Kansas question could be resolved “harmony between the sections” would be restored.

Thacher, T. Dwight. “The Leavenworth Constitutional Convention.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1883-1885 3 (1886): 5-15. Thacher, a convention delegate from Lawrence, explains the rationale for this 1858 convention, Kansas' third; see also his “The Rejected Constitutions,” 436-448.

Waters, Joseph G. “Fifty Years of the Wyandotte Constitution.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1909-1910 11 (1910): 47-52. Waters holds that “conservatism of other states” was reflected in this document despite Kansas’s extraordinary beginnings and, although generally a good instrument, “It was a mistake not to include woman suffrage.”

"What Might Have Happened had Lecompton Prevailed.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1907-1908 10 (1908): 216-223. Includes reprints of Thomas Ewing, Jr., and Charles Robinson letters from December 1857 -May 1858.

General or Miscellaneous

Abel, Anna Heloise. “Indian Reservations in Kansas and the Extinguishment of Their Title.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 72-109. A significant study completed as master's thesis at Kansas University, 1902; includes a map of Indian reservations in Kansas, 1846.

Barry, Louise, editor. “With the First U. S. Cavalry in Indian Country, 1859-1861: Letters to The Daily Times, Leavenworth.”Kansas Historical Quarterly24 (Autumn 1958): 257-284; second installment, 24 (Winter 1958): 399-425. Published almost monthly, beginning February 8, 1859, in the Daily Times, these anonymous letters cover the movement and activity of cavalry troops from Fort Leavenworth in the “Indian regions” of Kansas, Nebraska, and Indian territories.

Brinkerhoff, Fred W. “The Kansas Tour of Lincoln the Candidate.”Kansas Historical Quarterly13 (February 1945): 294-307. The Republican presidential candidate visited northeast Kansas in December 1859; this was Brinkerhoff’s 1944 KSHS presidential address.

Caldwell, Martha B., editor. “The Southern Kansas Boundary Survey: From the Journal of Hugh Campbell, Astronomical Computer.”Kansas Historical Quarterly6 (November 1937): 339-377. Covers party's journey and work from St. Louis (April 1857) to Fort Leavenworth (November 1857).

Carr, E. T. “Reminiscences Concerning Fort Leavenworth in 1855-'56.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-1912 12 (1912): 375-383. The author removed to Kansas from New York in 1855 to work as carpenter at fort.

Chalfant, William Y.Cheyennes and Horse Soldiers: The 1857 Expedition and the Battle of Solomon’s Fork.Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1989. In Kansas Territory during the 1850s, the U.S. Army was occupied on two fronts: the border disputes in the east and increasing hostilities with the Plains Indians in the west. Here Chalfant focuses on the July 1857 clash between Colonel E. V. Sumner’s cavalry regiment and a relatively large force of Cheyennes.

Chapman, Berlin B. "Removal of the Osages from Kansas."Kansas Historical Quarterly7 (August 1938): 287-305; concluded, 7 (November 1938): 399-410. By the early 1870s Osage lands in southern Kansas had been ceded and Osages relocated on Cherokee land in Indian Territory.

Coakley, Robert W.The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders, 1789-1878.Army Historical Series. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military Studies, United States Army, 1988. Two chapters, "Trouble in Kansas: First Phase" and "The Last Phase in Kansas and Its Sequel," deal specifically and in some depth with the federal response to the Kansas troubles of 1854-1859 and with John Brown at Harpers Ferry.

Fisher, Glenn W. “Property Taxation in the Kansas Territory.”Kansas History11 (Autumn 1988): 185-200. Despite the peculiar problems facing the first Kansas lawmakers (e.g., slavery and land titles), territorial legislators “followed the established practice of copying the laws from areas which had already achieved statehood” and “no effort was made to design a tax system” suited for the territory’s unique circumstances.

Ferguson, Samuel W. “With Albert Sidney Johnston's Expedition to Utah, 1857.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-1912 12 (1912): 303-312. Ferguson, a recent West Point graduate, spent some time in Kansas before moving with Johnston's dragoons against the Mormons.

Haskell, John G. “The Passing of Slavery in Western Missouri.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 28-39. Haskell, an important Kansas architect among other accomplishments, here offers an interpretation of national events and their impact on western Missouri and territorial Kansas.

"Indian Treaties and Councils Affecting Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1923-1925 16 (1925): 746-772. Originally compiled by Charles J. Kappler, these materials include dates, places, and participants, 1541-1873.

Lillard, T. M. “Beginnings of the Kansas Judiciary.”Kansas Historical Quarterly10 (February 1941): 91-99. Lillard's KSHS presidential address covered the judicial branch from the first three federally appointed territorial district judges of 1855 to Thomas Ewing, Jr., the first chief justice of state supreme court.

"Lincoln in Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 536-552. Accounts of the future president’s December 1859 visit as printed in Elwood Free Press, Leavenworth Times, and elsewhere; included is a “synopsis of Lincoln's speech at Leavenworth.”

Madden, John L. “The Financing of a New Territory: The Kansas Territorial Tax Structure, 1854-1861.”Kansas Historical Quarterly35 (Summer 1969): 155-164. Not surprisingly, the first territorial legislature created a tax system for Kansas that relied on the property tax and “was modeled generally after the Missouri tax code.”

Martin, George W. “The Territorial and Military Combine at Fort Riley.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 361-390. Fort Riley (established, 1853) and environs played a significant role in Kansas territorial and early statehood history.

Mattes, Merrill J., editor. “Patrolling the Sante Fe Trail: Reminiscences of John S. Kirwin.”Kansas Historical Quarterly21 (Winter 1955): 569-587. Kirwin, a private in the Fourth U. S. Cavalry, was stationed at Fort Riley, 1859-1861.

Peck, Robert Morris. “Recollections of Early Times in Kansas Territory: From the Standpoint of a Regular Cavalryman.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 484-507. Peck was private in the First U.S. Cavalry assigned to Fort Leavenworth in 1857.

Potts, James B. “North of `Bleeding Kansas': The 1850s Political Crisis in Nebraska Territory.”Nebraska History73 (Fall 1992): 110-118. Frequent mention of the Kansas struggle--a sharp contrast to Nebraska scene--and discussion of issues such as the annexation of the “South Platte” region to Kansas.

Seabrook, S. L. “Expedition of Col. E. V. Sumner Against the Cheyenne Indians, 1857.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1923-1925 16 (1925): 306-315. Based on recollections of S. Gunther, a soldier in Sumner's command.

Socolofsky, Homer E.Kansas Governors. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1990. Biographical sketches of each of the six territorial governors and four acting governors, along with portraits and autographs.

Taylor, Morris F. “The Mail Station and the Military Camp on Pawnee Fork, 1859-1860.”Kansas Historical Quarterly36 (Spring 1970): 27-39. Deals with the activities of the military at the Arkansas River post—later called Fort Larned—during these first years of the Pike’s Peak Gold Rush.

Thoburn, Joseph B. “Indian Fight in Ford County in 1859.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-1912 12 (1912): 312-329. Thoburn discusses Major Earl Van Dorn's expedition from Camp Radziminski (Indian Territory) and engagements with some Comanches in western Kansas.

Wilson, Paul E. “How the Law Came to Kansas.”Kansas History15 (Spring 1992): 18-35. The focus is the pre-territorial years, before the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of May 1854, and the territorial period, 1854-1861.

"Bleeding Kansas"--Border Disputes and Warfare

Abbott, James B. “The Rescue of Dr. John W. Doy.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1886-1888 4 (1890): 312-323. In a paper delivered to the annual meeting of the State Historical Society in January 1889, Abbott detailed Doy's capture, along with thirteen fugitive slaves, in January 1859, and Doy's rescue from a St. Joseph, Missouri, jail the following July.

Botkin, Theodosius. “Among the Sovereign Squats.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 418-441. These recollections focus primarily on events in early Linn County, Kansas Territory.

Caldwell, Martha B. “The Stubbs.”Kansas Historical Quarterly6 (May 1937): 124-131. “The Stubbs” was a free-state militia company organized at Lawrence in April 1855 as the Kansas Rifles; includes constitution and by-laws.

Cobb, Ronald Lee. “Guthrie Mound and the Hanging of John Guthrie.”Kansas History5 (Autumn 1982): 177-183. “[Y]et another example of territorial justice,” according to the author, John Guthrie was lynched in northwest Bourbon County on February 5, 1860, perhaps because of his proslave views.

Connelley, William E. “Col. Richard J. Hinton.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1901-1902 7 (1902): 488-493. Hinton (1830-1901), an English journalist and supporter of John Brown, spent much time in Kansas from 1856 to 1862.

Connelley, William E. “The Lane-Jenkins Claim Contest.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1923-1925 16 (1925): 21-176. Famous territorial land dispute between James H. Lane and Gaius Jenkins led to the death of Jenkins at the hands of Lane; mostly reprints of letters and legal documents.

Connelley, William E. “The Lane Trail.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1913-1914 13 (1914): 268-279. The route to Kansas through Iowa and Nebraska established by James Henry Lane in 1856 for free-state settlers, with detailed maps.

Dickson, Charles Howard. “The True Story of the Branson Rescue.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1913-1914 13 (1914): 280-298. The story of a free-state settler of Douglas County who was arrested by Sheriff Jones and men in November 1855 allegedly because he had witnessed a proslave murder; rescuers included S. N. Wood and J. B. Abbott.

Elliott, R. G. “The Events of 1856. The Twenty-first of May.”Kansas Historical Collection7 (1901-1902): 521-536. One of Lawrence’s first newspaper editors here analyzes the “slave extensionists” plot to control Kansas Territory and “the [sheriff] Jones invasion” of Lawrence (i.e., “sack of Lawrence”) that occurred on May 21, 1856.

Etcheson, Nicole. “Black Slavery, White Liberty.”North & South3 (September 2000): 42-58. A fine, relatively brief look at the causes of strife and violence in “Bleeding Kansas.”

Etcheson, Nicole. “‘Labouring for the Freedom of This Territory’: Free-State Kansas Women in the 1850s.”Kansas History21 (Summer 1998): 68-87. Using Ellen and Harriet Goodnow as two of her prime examples, Etcheson examines “the interplay of politics, domesticity, and western settlement in the lives of nineteenth-century women.”

Ewy, Marvin. “The United States Army in the Kansas Border Troubles, 1855-1856.”Kansas Historical Quarterly32 (Winter 1966): 385-400. The author concludes that the army was relatively neutral in its efforts to maintain peace in “Bleeding Kansas.”

Fellman, Michael. “Rehearsal for the Civil War: Antislavery and Proslavery at the Fighting Point in Kansas, 1854-1856.” In Antislavery Reconsidered: New Perspectives on the Abolitionists. Lewis Perry and Michael Fellman, eds. (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979), 287-307.

Gardner, Theodore. “An Episode in Kansas History: The Doy Rescue.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1926-1928 17 (1928): 851-855. In 1858 Dr. John Doy of Lawrence was charged by a Missouri court with “abducting” slaves.

Gibbens, V. E., ed. “Letters on the War in Kansas in 1856.”Kansas Historical Quarterly10 (November 1941): 369-379. The 1857 letters of John Lowrie, a free-state participant, reflect on his experiences in and around Lawrence after his return to Indiana.

Green, L. F. “James B. Abbott.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 225-231. Abbott (1818-1897) was a member of the group that freed Dr. John Doy from proslave captivity at St. Joseph, Missouri, July 23, 1859.

Griffith, G. W. E. “The Battle of Black Jack.”Kansas Historical Collections16 (1923-1925): 524-528. Recollections of John Brown's 1856 victory over Captain Henry Clay Pate and his proslave company, near Baldwin City in southern Douglas County.

Herklotz, Hildegarde Rose. “Jayhawkers in Missouri, 1858-1863.”Missouri Historical Review17 (April 1923): 266-284. This first in a series of three articles on Jayhawers in Missouri is subtitled “Conditions on the Kansas-Missouri Border, 1854-1858.”

Herklotz, Hildegarde Rose. “Jayhawkers in Missouri, 1858-1863.”Missouri Historical Review17 (July 1923): 505-513. The subtitle of this second of three articles on Kansas Jayhawkers is “Missouri Prepares to Resist the Jayhawkers, 1860.”

Herklotz, Hildegarde Rose. “Jayhawkers in Missouri, 1858-1863.”Missouri Historical Review18 (October 1923): 64-101. The activities of James H. Lane, “the greatest Jayhawking leader,” during the first two years of the war, 1861-1862, and in the wake of Quantrill's 1863 raid, are the author's focus here; she found the “Grim Chieftain” to be “an unscrupulous soldier of fortune, and a base and mischievous politician.”

Hougen, Harvey R. “The Marais des Cygnes Massacre and the Execution of William Griffith.”Kansas History8 (Summer 1985): 74-94. Provides details of the pro-slave “massacre” of five freestaters on May 19, 1858, William Griffith's subsequent arrest, murder trial, conviction, and execution on October 30, 1863.

Hutchinson, William. “Claims for Losses of Kansas Settlers During the Troubles of 1855 and 1856.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 360-365. As with most such claims, satisfaction was slow and awards represented only about 30 percent of claims.

Isely, William H. “The Sharps Rifle Episode in Kansas History.”American Historical Review12 (April 1907): 546-566. Isely focused here on “one phase of the dramatic” Kansas struggle: “the out put, source, and distribution of Sharps rifles, ‘Beecher Bibles,’ and other arms furnished to Kansas emigrants.”

Jackson, W. Turrentine. “The Army Engineers as Road Surveyors and Builders in Kansas and Nebraska, 1854-1858.”Kansas Historical Quarterly17 (February 1949): 37-59. Often overlooked in the histories of western settlement and development is the role of the federal government, especially perhaps the military, as facilitator.

Johannsen, Robert W., editor. “A Footnote to the Pottawatomie Massacre, 1856.”Kansas Historical Quarterly22 (Autumn 1956): 236-241. Reprinted here are two letters—written in 1856 and 1858 by Henry James, a brother in law--pertaining to the family and murder of Allen Wilkinson, “the most prominent” of John Brown's five victims.

Kellow, Margaret M.R. "‘For the Sake of Suffering Kansas’: Lydia Maria Child, Gender, and the Politics of the 1850s."Journal of Women’s History5 (Fall 1993): 32-49.Child, who was a well-established New York author by the mid-1850s, came to see "the saving of Kansas for Free Soil as crucial to the fight against slavery" and "articulated her ‘zeal for Kansas’ in a story entitled ‘The Kansas Emigrant,’" first published in the fall of 1856.

Kiene, L. L. “The Battle of the Spurs and John Brown's Exit From Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 443-449. The “battle” of December 20, 1858, occurring during Brown’s flight to Canada just months before the Harpers Ferry raid.

Langsdorf, Edgar. “Thaddeus Hyatt in Washington Jail.”Kansas Historical Quarterly9 (August 1940): 227-239. Hyatt, a New York capitalist who supported “free” Kansas both physically and financially, was jailed in March 1860 for contempt of Congress after he refused to testify in the John Brown/Harpers Ferry investigation.

Lowell, James H. “The Battle of the Spurs.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1919-1922 15 (1922): 598-599. An “Underground Railroad” incident involving John Brown, north of Horton, January 1859.

Lutz, Rev. John J. “Quantrill and the Morgan Walker Tragedy.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 324-331. Reportedly the first documented incident of William Clarke Quantrill’s treachery occurred in Jackson County, Missouri, December 1860.

Malin, James C. "The Hoogland Examination: The United States v. John Brown, Jr., et al."Kansas Historical Quarterly7 (May 1938): 133-153. Reflects on events surrounding the Pottawatomie massacre and border conflict in southeast Kansas in 1856.

Malin, James C. “Identification of the Stranger at the Pottawatomie Massacre.”Kansas Historical Quarterly9 (February 1940): 3-12. The Brown raid on pro-slave settlers in southern Franklin County, May 24-25, 1856, occurred while the Howard Committee (special congressional committee to investigate the Kansas troubles), and the first mention of the “stranger” appeared in the minority report affidavit of James Harris.

Malin, James C. “Judge Lecompte and the ‘Sack of Lawrence,’ May 21, 1856. Part One: The Contemporary Phase.”Kansas Historical Quarterly20 (August 1953): 465-494; “Part Two: The Historical Phase.” 20 (November 1953): 553-597. For their own partisan reasons, both pro- and anti-slave factions unjustly, according to Malin, blamed the excesses of Sheriff Jones’ pose on U.S. District Court Judge Samuel Lecompte; Malin uses this incident as an opportunity to comment on numerous territorial issues and incidents.

McKivigan, John R., and Stanley Harrold, editors.Antislavery Violence: Sectional, Racial, and Cultural Conflict in Antebellum America.Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1999. Among other items of special interest to Kansans will be the essay by Kristen A. Tegtmeier, “The Ladies of Lawrence Are Arming!: The Gendered Nature of Sectional Violence in Early Kansas.”

Meerse, David E. “‘No Propriety in the Late Course of the Governor’: The Geary-Sherrard Affair Reexamined.”Kansas Historical Quarterly42 (Autumn 1976): 237-262. Famous and controversial incident stemming from the fatal shooting (by associates of governor) of Douglas County Sheriff William Sherrard at Lecompton in February 1857 and subsequent resignation of territorial Governor John Geary.

Moody, Joel. “The Marais Des Cygnes Massacre.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1915-1918 13 (1918): 208-223. Includes a map showing the route Charles Hamilton took as he gathered the free-state victims of the Linn County atrocity, May 19, 1858.

"Notes on the Proslavery March Against Lawrence.”Kansas Historical Quarterly11 (February 1942): 45-64. The Siege and sack of the Free-state stronghold in May 1856, as described in diary of proslave participant.

Oertell, Kristen Tegtmeier. “‘The free sons of the North’ vs. ‘The myridons of Border-Ruffianism’: What Makes a Man in Bleeding Kansas?”Kansas History25 (Autumn 2002): 174-189. Oertell applies the interpretative lens of gender to the study of men and competing versions of manliness in territorial Kansas; free-state men, she concludes, “began to find the utility in cultivating an ideal of manliness that stood ready and willing to strike the first blow.”

Parker, Martha J., edited by Christine Reinhard.Angels of Freedom.Topeka, Kans.: Chapman Publishers, 1999. Angels of Freedom contains numerous biographical essays about people with some connection to the Underground Railroad in western Douglas County—people such as Joseph Gardner, Augustus Wattles, and Henry and Francis Hiatt—and a preface by the late Richard B. Sheridan.

Phillips, Christopher, “ ‘The Crime against Missouri’: Slavery, Kansas, and the Cant of Southernness in the Border West.”Civil War History48 (March 2002): 60-81. Phillips examines the complex nature Misourians’ attitude toward slavery and its future in Kansas—a melding of Southern and Middle Western values—and the implications this had for “the social and ideological evolution of the very border region they occupied.”

Pierson, Michael D., editor. “‘A War of Extermination': A Newly Uncovered Letter by Julia Louisa Lovejoy, 1856.”Kansas History16 (Summer 1993): 120-123. This letter is addressed from Lawrence, K.T., August 25, 1856, and appeared in the Concord, N.H., Independent Democrat.

Richmond, Robert W., editor. “A Free-Stater's `Letters to the Editor': Samuel N. Wood's Letters to Eastern Newspapers, 1854.”Kansas Historical Quarterly23 (Summer 1957): 181-190. One of Kansas’ more colorful late-nineteenth-century characters, S. N. Wood (1825-1891) was, among other things, a journalist who settled first in Lawrence; the four letters were written during the summer of 1854.

Robinson, Sara T. D. “The Wakarusa War.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1907-1908 10 (1908): 457-471. Wife of Free-state leader and first state governor, Dr. Charles Robinson, recounts events of November and December 1855.

Robinson, W. Stitt, editor. “The Kiowa and Comanche Campaign of 1860 as Recorded in the Personal Diary of Lt. J. E. B. Stuart.”Kansas Historical Quarterly23 (Winter 1957): 382-400. The campaign, as described here by the soon to be famous Confederate general, began at Ft. Riley, on May 15, 1860, under command of Maj. John Sedgwick.

Root, George A., editor. “Extracts from Diary of Captain Lambert Bowman Wolf.”Kansas Historical Quarterly1 (May 1932): 195-210. Captain Wolf’s account of his pre-Civil War frontier experience on the Plains, 1856-1861, with Company K, First U.S. Cavalry.

Root, George A., editor. “The First Day's Battle at Hickory Point: From the Diary and Reminiscences of Samuel James Reader.”Kansas Historical Quarterly(November 1931): 28-49. Free-staters under James Lane confronted pro-slavery men under H. A. Lowe on September 13-14, 1856, near present Oskaloosa.

Schmeller, Erik S. “Propagandists for a Free-State Kansas: New York Times' Correspondents and Bleeding Kansas, 1856.”Heritage of the Great Plains23 (Summer 1990): 7-14. Describes the activities and writings of men like William Hutchinson and Richard Hinton, special Times correspondents.

Schoonover, Thomas. “Foreign Relations and Kansas in 1858.”Kansas Historical Quarterly42 (Winter 1976): 345-352. Bleeding Kansas’ impact on U.S.-Latin American relations; perceived threat caused by frustrated Southern expansionism.

SenGupta, Gunja. “‘A Model New England State’: Northeastern Antislavery in Territorial Kansas, 1854-1860.”Civil War History39 (March 1993): 31-46. New England abolitionists sought more than the defeat of slavery; they wished to place their “uniquely northeastern tapestry of `Americanism' over the morally and economically vulnerable West.”

Sheridan, Richard B., editor.Freedom’s Crucible: The Underground Railroad in Lawrence and
Douglas County, Kansas, 1854-1865: A Reader.Lawrence: Division of Continuing Education, University of Kansas, 1998. This volume contains articles by UGRR participants such as John Bowles and Theodore Gardner and historical pieces by Sheridan, journalist Nancy Smith, and others.

Shively, S. J. “The Pottawatomie Massacre.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1903-1904 8 (1904): 175-187. Right or wrong, the author considers Brown’s May 24-25, 1856, massacre near Dutch Henry crossing a pivotal event.

Smith, Ed. R. “Marais des Cygnes Tragedy.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 365-370. Smith retells the story of the Linn County “massacre” of May 19, 1858, in which five free staters were murdered.

Smith, Nathan, editor. “Letters of a Free-State Man in Kansas, 1856.”Kansas Historical Quarterly21 (Autumn 1954): 166-172. Henry H. Williams was a Pottawatomie Creek settler who disapproved of John Brown's activity.

Tannar, A. H. “Early Days in Kansas: The Marais Des Cygnes Massacre and the Rescue of Ben Rice.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1915-1918 13 (1918): 224-234. The author of this reminiscence settled in Linn County in 1857.

Watts, Dale. “How Bloody was Bleeding Kansas? Political Killings in Kansas Territory, 1854-1861.”Kansas History18 (Summer 1995): 116-129. After carefully analyzing the evidence, the author concludes that political killings number about fifty, far less than many have indicated, and that the violence was perpetrated about equally by both sides—free state and proslave.

Watts, Dale E. “Plows and Bibles, Rifles and Revolvers: Guns in Kansas Territory.”Kansas History21 (Spring 1998): 30-45. Although settlers were not nearly as well armed as popular mythology would have us believe and most did not shoulder their “muskets” in battle, firearms were among the “important tools” used by white Americans to settle the western frontier, and in Kansas “guns also carried a special symbolic meaning in the turmoil of Bleeding Kansas.”

Welch, G. Murlin, edited by Dan L. Smith.Border Warfare in Southeastern Kansas, 1856-1859.Pleasanton, Kans.: Linn County Publishers, 1977. This version of Welch’s study of the violent conflict in Linn and Bourbon counties, originally completed in 1938 as a master's thesis at the University of Kansas, contains additional notes and benefits from ongoing scholarship.

Wilder, Daniel W. “The Story of Kansas.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 336-342. Leavenworth journalist and free-state partisan D. W. Wilder here concentrates on the territorial period.

Woodward, Brinton W. “Reminiscences of September 14, 1856; Invasion of the 2700.”Kansas Historical Collections, 1897-1900 6 (1900): 77-83.Incidents at Lawrence and Governor John Geary's intervention.

Settlement and Development

Abbott, Francis A. “Some Reminiscences of Early Days on Deep Creek, Riley County.”Kansas Historical Collection, 1911-1912 12 (1912): 392-396. The author removed from cotton mills of Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1855.

Barry, Louise. "The Emigrant Aid Company Parties of 1854."Kansas Historical Quarterly12 (May 1943): 115-155. Information on six groups of settlers backed by New England company; parties that came under company auspices in 1855 covered in August issue (12:227-268).

Barry, Louise, editor. “Scenes in (And En Route To) Kansas Territory, Autumn, 1854: Five Letter by Wm. H. Hutter.”Kansas Historical Quarterly35 (Autumn 1969): 312-336. Hutter, the editor of Easton, Pennsylvania, Argus, traveled as far west as Fort Riley.

Bay, J. Christian.A Heroine of the Frontier: Miriam Davis Colt in Kansas, 1856.Cedar Rapids, Iowa: Torch Press, 1941. Bay relied mostly on extracts from Miriam Colt's diaries to retell the story of her family’s tragic involvement with the Vegetarian Colony settlement.

Bremer, Jeff R. “‘A Species of Town-Building Madness’: Quindaro and Kansas Territory, 1856-1862.”Kansas History26 (Autumn 2003): 156-171.

Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2002.05.36

William D. Furley, Jan Maarten Bremer, Greek Hymns. Volume I. The Texts in Translation.   Tübingen:  Mohr Siebeck, 2001.  Pp.  xxii + 411.  ISBN 3-16-147527-5.  EUR 39.00.  

William D. Furley, Jan Maarten Bremer, Greek Hymns. Volume II. Greek Texts and Commentary.   Tübingen:  Mohr Siebeck, 2001.  Pp. viii + 443.  ISBN 3-16-147553-4.  EUR 79.00.  

Reviewed by Andrew Faulkner, Merton College, Oxford (andrew.faulkner@merton.ox.ac.uk)
Word count: 1220 words

Many readers of Greek might claim to be reasonably familiar with the corpus of Homeric Hymns and with the well known hymns of Callimachus. Few, however, will be able to make the same claim about Greek hymns outside these major literary collections. Although hymns are recognised to have been used extensively in Greek religious cult, only a small fraction of what once existed has survived, and scholarly attention has naturally focused upon the more cohesive literary collections that we possess. In this new two volume collection, W.D. Furley and J.M. Bremer attempt to redress this imbalance and, by focusing more on examples of cult hymnography, offer 'as full a picture as possible of the sum of ancient Greek hymns'(vol. I, p.5).

The authors have chosen a selection of hymns, which are divided into twelve chapters according to the cult centre in which they were used. Chapter one focuses on Crete, two on Delphi, three on Delos, four on Lyric Hymns from Lesbos and Ionia, five on Thebes, six on Epidauros and seven on Athens. Chapters eight to eleven then look at examples of cult hymns found in Athenian drama, devoting a separate chapter to Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes respectively. The final chapter looks at some miscellaneous hymns, which do not fit elsewhere into the collection. A text, translation, general analysis and detailed commentary are provided for each piece. The first volume contains a broad introduction to Greek hymns, the texts in translation and the general analysis of each hymn. The second volume has the Greek text with a full apparatus criticus, an examination of the metre of each hymn and the detailed commentary. The first volume also contains a general index, while the second has four useful appendices devoted to 1) epithets and attributes of the gods in the hymns, 2) sacred places in the hymns, 3) musical accompaniment to the hymns and 4) an index of Greek words. Both volumes are equipped with a full bibliography.

Of particular note is the decision to omit the Homeric Hymns and the hymns of Callimachus from the collection. Two principal reasons are given in the preface for their exclusion: 1) 'excellent editions of these texts already exist' and 2) 'they serve a more literary purpose, being assimilated to other literary genres more concerned with narrative and literary mimesis than worship pure and simple.' Regarding the first of these reasons, it is indeed true that excellent editions of these hymns already exist.1 The production of a new critical text would have served little useful purpose. Moreover, even though full commentaries for all of the major Homeric Hymns are still lacking, except for Demeter,2 this is clearly not the place for them to appear; a publication which already requires two rather substantial volumes would have become unmanageable had any of these longer hymns been included. But what of some of the shorter Homeric Hymns? Having drawn the above distinction between literary and cult hymns in their preface, the authors rightly go on to speak of the difficulty in marking a clear separation between literature and cult hymns. They suggest that the distinction is a matter of emphasis and purpose, summed up by the following: 'The cult hymn is a form of worship directed towards winning a god's goodwill and securing his or her assistance or favour. Literature is concerned with the entertainment and enlightenment of the audience addressed' (p.2). While this distinction is useful, and perhaps applicable to the intent of the longer Homeric Hymns, it is particularly problematic when applied to some of the smaller hymns in the collection. It is difficult, for example, to say that the five-line Hymn 11 to Athena is not a cult hymn in any real sense, based upon these criteria. It has no formulaic transition to a longer rhapsodic piece which many of the Homeric Hymns possess, and its final line can quite legitimately be read as a genuine attempt to gain the favour of the goddess (χαῖρεθεά,δὸςδ'ἄμμιτύχηνεὐδαιμονίηντε). Even the longer hymns can have been genuinely directed towards winning the god's goodwill; see for example H.H. 2.494 πρόφρονεςἀντ'ᾠδῆςβίοτονθυμήρε'ὀπάζειν. Nonetheless, the authors of this book are acutely aware of the subtleties of this problem. Referring also to the arguments of Race, who made the useful distinction between the more impersonal 'Er-Stil' of literary hymns and the more personal 'Du-Stil' of cult hymns (pp.42-43), they are cautious about formulating a single definition of either type of hymn, cult or literary. Importantly, despite the omission of any section devoted to either Callimachus or the Homeric Hymns, the two major collections are far from being ignored. They are referred to often throughout the two volumes and are discussed as they relate to and elucidate the other hymns being examined. If the Homeric Hymns and those of Callimachus are not examples of cult hymns proper, they do provide a great deal of insight into the practices of Greek religion and cult worship. The authors have here dealt with them effectively while refreshingly concentrating attention elsewhere.

The command of previous scholarship which Bremer and Furley bring to this collection is impressive and is one of the great strengths of these books. Throughout both the general analyses of the first volume and the detailed commentary of the second volume, previous scholarly arguments are presented in summation and evaluated with experienced balance. Bibliography is meticulously up to date and complete, including even a reference to the web-site of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, where recordings of the musical notation found with two paians to Apollo can be heard (www.oeaw.ac.at/kal/agm). Each Greek text is prefaced by a list of previous editions and significant studies, and both the experienced reader of these hymns and the beginner are provided with an excellent platform for further inquiry. In addition, this collection is well designed for readers of varying levels in other ways. The first volume will be particularly attractive to readers with little or no Greek, while the second caters for the Greek reader who desires a closer look at the language of these texts. Yet, while this distinction exists, neither volume is intended exclusively for one type of audience. Throughout the first volume, Greek passages referred to, which are translated in the main body of the book, consistently have the original Greek provided in footnotes. Similarly, while much of the discussion in the second volume will be of limited use to a reader without Greek, the first volume refers readers to the second when the discussion is particularly relevant.

Mistakes are few and far between in these editions and the Greek text is prepared with particular accuracy; accents and breathings have been carefully checked. There is the occasional typo: one is surprised to hear in a book published in 2001 that the main fragment of Makedonikos' paian to Apollo and Asklepios, discovered at the end of the 19th century in the Athenian Asklepion and published by Kumanudes, was found 'at the end of the last century' (vol.I, p.267). But errors are rare and certainly no impediment to the reader. In the preface, the authors speak of creating a 'source-book' of Greek cult hymns; these editions are that and more and it seems that for scholars and students alike they are bound to be very popular indeed.


1.   See A. Gemoll, ,Die Homerischen Hymnen, Leipzig, 1886; T.W. Allen and E.E. Sikes, The Homeric Hymns, London, 1904; T.W. Allen, W.R. Halliday and E.E. Sikes, The Homeric Hymns, Oxford, 1936. F. Càssola, Inni Omerici, Lorenzo Valla, 1975. There is also the edition of Zanetto in 1996, which is not, however, major.
2.   N. Richardson, The Homeric Hymn to Demeter, Oxford, 1974.


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