Science and Technology is the basis of modern civilization. The age in which we live can rightly be called the age of science and technology.
The progress of science and technology has made many useful achievements in every field of our life.
In everyday life, we enjoy various gifts of science and technology that have made our life more easy and comfortable than before.
- The morning newspaper which brings to us all important news of the whole world is a product of science.
- For our daily comforts science has given us the electric light, the electric fan, the refrigerator and the electric oven.
- Science and technology has made our means of communication and transport very easy. Buses, trains, ships and Aero-planes uses advanced technologies and carry us to distant places for more quickly.
- Newer technologies help us in taking out all the minerals liker coal, iron, gold, diamond and mica from the science.
- Introduction of latest technology in the works of cultivation by the scientific methods have greatly increased the production of crops.
- Science and technology also provides us with the some means of amusement like radio, television and video that entertains us.
- Many life giving medicines that cure our diseases are also the gift of science.
- Now satellites are sent to the sky to bring many information of the outer space.
- Man has even been able to set foot on the moon and know many things about other planets.
All the above wonders have been possible only due to development of science and technology.
But science and technology has also been abused by many people. The gross use of science and technology for destructive purposes has twined it to a curse. Deadly scientific weapons like atom and hydrogen bombs, missiles can destroy the whole world in a moment.
Atomic energy can be used effectively for constructive purposes. It can turn a desert into a fertile land. It can also be used in curing some incurable diseases, if scientific research is properly made in this respect.
Thus, science and technology can make the human civilization perfect in all respect.
Category: Essays, Paragraphs and ArticlesTagged With: Science and Technology
Can Technology Help Indian Villages?
Technology and Rural Life
“Go rural”. This is the ‘in’ phrase in the current culture of economic planning and development. The magical code words open many a door of perception but the success in translating the phrase into action depends upon the efficiency of an the strategy to be adopted by the Government. The present effort of decision-makers to give a rural-reorientation to national planning is meant to neutralize the negative impact of large-scale industrialization on the rural sector and promote a healthy self-sustaining village economy. In another sense it means that all our development plans while creating populous cities and giant industrial complexes have not only pauperized a great mass of people but have also conferred benefits to a mere 20 percent of the population.
“Go rural”: That is what the corporate sector too, of late wants to do. It wants to make its weighty contribution to end rural poverty. Not that they are setting up industries in villages. Many of the companies, including a few multinationals, have adopted villages to help them in the construction of roads, getting power supply, digging up wells, providing basic technical facilities, etc. The industrial houses are also scheduled to arrange training in cottage and small industries, farm methods, fertilizer use, dairying, breeding and marketing. A welcome change, indeed, it is in the social attitude of hitherto profit oriented business houses. But they have inducement too to take to rural development.
That as many as nearly 90 companies have become highly interested in the uplift of the rural folks shows that the inducement is substantial, under section 35 CC of the Income Tax Act of 1961. The income tax concession is related not to physical performance but to actual expenditure. An analysis of the programmes of private undertakings in the adopted villages shows that most of them are mainly engaged in laying out roads, digging up wells, training in farming methods, instructing and promoting health care and education. What is urgently required is a permanent system of transferring appropriate technology to the village artisans in order to raise their productivity and production so that a self-sustained economy can be brought about.
But then all companies have a limited role in going rural. The income tax concession is after all for actual expenditure and not for physical performance. At the administrative level, to restore to health the nascent village economy, create employment, end poverty and promote tiny industries, a number of measures, fiscal, financial and operational have been set in motion. In this context it has created only pockets of prosperity in urban centres, the green revolution has benefited a few sections of the people in the rural sector thereby widening the area of socio-economic disparities. The connecting link between the two sectors of affluence is the unity in the adoption of improved technology.
The need of urban industrialization has forced up the demand for marketable surplus of food and other farm produce such as cotton, oilseeds, sugarcane, jute, etc. As a result, both agricultural and rural industries did receive stimulus through flow of credit, irrigation and other technological and economic infrastructures. The improved cultivation of agricultural raw materials through technological innovations while improving the lot of those who could utilize the credit and other fiscal facilities as well as other inputs has helped the peasants and artisans, stepping up the growth rate of the jobless. The rural areas are being used as a hinterland, a source of supply of industrial raw materials and manpower and a market for finished products manufactured in the urban sector.
The ethos of planning so far has been (a) to create some organization of production, distribution and administrative machinery, staff them with urban middle class, and (b) to provide infrastructure such as banking, electricity, irrigation, supply of seeds and fertilizers; all of which cater to the need of the rural upper class. Even the financing of rural industries is in favour of a privileged few. Hence the rural power structure is such that the rich peasantry is in a position to bargain for cheaper inputs higher prices for their produce and monopolise the benefits of improved technology. To what extent technology is a critical factor for rural industrialization and how best it can free the rural landless and artisans from the present conditions to become productive?
The adoption of such technologies will be able to help in providing the rural poor with shelter, clothing, education and health facilities which ultimately will generate labour-intensive self-employment among the village artisans and craftsmen. The idea of transfer of technology to rural artisans means that it should embrace all spheres of rural crafts and trades and take into account not only the level of existing skills, availability of capital, but also the questions relating to cost of production, and geographical and time considerations.
This will mean that the application of appropriate technology to rural crafts and industries must accept the primacy of the needs of the people, pattern of culture, availability of local resources, and human potential. Consequently, the utilization of technology may have to differ from region to region. Though it is true that when technological innovations are introduced in a village the standard of living of the people generally improves, there are several backward areas where the assimilation of modern technology is very slow and gets bogged down. This is in keeping with the distorted nature of national development. So a comprehensive programme to bring about social and economic changes in rural India becomes imperative.
Without input mobilization ability of a larger section of people, modern technology cannot be assimilated. Transfer of appropriate technology cannot be done without any drastic social transformation, for many modern technology inputs require community action. On another level the adoption of appropriate technology should interact with farm production and management and play an important role in spreading the technical know-how to larger areas in order to utilize their average skills. Consequently such a planned effort will have multiplier effects. The whole aim of introduction and development of technology in the rural sector is not only to free the productive forces in the rural sector but also to accelerate the pace of economic development.